Let me use an example to illustrate this topic:
Nothing magical so far, it's very simple. Now, let's say we decide to store this character on our hard drive. To do that, we need to store the character in binary format. We can simply store it as is '01101100 01001001'. Done!
But wait a minute, is '01101100 01001001' one character or two characters? You knew this is one character because I told you, but when a computer reads it, it has no idea. So we need some sort of "encoding" to tell the computer to treat it as one.
This is where the rules of 'UTF-8' comes in: http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/utf8.htm
According to the table above, if we want to store this character using the 'UTF-8' format, we need to prefix our character with some 'headers'. Our chinese character is 16 bits long (count the binary value yourself), so we will use the format on row 3 as it provides enough space:
Writing out the result in one line:
This is the UTF-8 (binary) value of the chinese character! (confirm it yourself)